Ikwerres and Their Denial of Igbo Identity

by Ikechukwu A. Ogu

This is a rejoinder to Mr. Okachikwu Dibia’s article entitled “Ikwerre-Igbo Relationship As Seen By Ohaneze Nd’Igbo” published on www.gamji.com wherein he attacked a comment reportedly made by the President of Ohaneze Nd’Igbo, Chief Ralph Uwechue, that the Ikwerres are Igbos who now deny their true ethnic identity. It is an established fact that there are indigenous Igbo-speaking peoples in Rivers, Delta, Edo and Cross River States. My mission here is not to urge the Ikwerres and other Igbos who behave alike to admit being Igbo. Rather, I intend to correct some historical gaffes, deliberate distortions and logical fallacies contained in Mr. Dibia’s write-up, and state the truth as I know it.

It amuses me when indigenes of Igbo-speaking communities outside the South-East deny their Igbo identity. The Ikwerres, represented by the likes of Okachikwu Dibia, are the fiercest and most strident in this act of playing the ostrich. The renowned writer Elechi Amadi, an Ikwerre man, restated this renunciation before the Oputa Panel in 2004 but was reminded of his Igbo name. Ironically, he is quoted to have upheld the Igbo origin of Ikwerres in one of his writings. Howbeit, Igbos in South-East Nigeria justifiably regard the Igbo-speaking areas of Rivers State (Ikwerre, Etche, Ogba, Ekpeye, Opobo, Ahaoda, Ndoni, Egbema, etc) as their kith and kin. On the other hand, the Ijaws and other non-Igbos of Rivers State also rightly refer to these communities as Igbos, and even claim that Rivers State has been under Igbo rule since 1999!

Generally, a person’s native name, mother-tongue, pedigree and ancestral geographical location define his race. But this may not be so in cases where an individual bears a name and speaks a language unrelated to the one associated with his ancestors. However, when the indigenes of an entire community speak as their mother tongue a language associated with a particular race, bear names borne only by persons of that race, share boundaries with communities within that race and have traditions similar to theirs, then the inescapable conclusion is that they belong to that race. This is the place of Ikwerres and other Igbo-speaking communities in Rivers, Delta, Edo and Cross River States vis-à-vis the Igbos of the South-East. The Austrians and indigenes of Sudetenland in Czech Republic speak German, bear German names, have traditions similar to those of the Germans and share boundaries with Germany, although they find themselves in distinct countries. This is also true of the Yoruba-speaking peoples found in Edo, Kogi and Kwara States as well as in Benin Republic. Just recently, a monarch from Benin Republic visited the Alaafin of Oyo and acknowledged his Yoruba roots.

Another exception to the above is where the community was a vassal to or colonized by the race whose language and names they speak and bear, as seen in Northern Nigeria where the Hausa-Fulanis have administrative and religious hegemony over many minority tribes sequel to Usman Dan Fodio’s 19th century jihad. Even so, indigenes of such a community still retain their native names, language and traditions.

Contrary to Mr. Dibia’s fictitious claim, there was no time in history that Nd’Igbo colonized or dominated the Ikwerres or any other community let alone imposed Igbo names on them. They never desired or attempted it. Owing to its republican and egalitarian nature, the Igbo race was never organized administratively as to colonize others. Had this happened prior to British rule in Nigeria, same would have been noticed and documented by the Europeans. Does Mr. Dibia regard the period when the entire South-East and South-South formed one Eastern Region of Nigeria as the period of Igbo colonization? That would be absurd. This warped idea means that, perhaps, only Ikwerres were so “colonized”, for no other community has alluded to it. If Nd’Igbo imposed the name Ikwerre on Mr. Dibia’s people, did they also force other communities to address them as such? The Hausas call the Afizere people of North-Central Nigeria and Igbos Jarawa and Nyamiri (corrupted form of nye m miri – Igbo expression for “give me water”) respectively, yet every other ethnic group calls them by their real names. Besides, some people have pet names for their towns, as the Aros call Arochukwu Okigbo. I presume this to be the case with the name Iwheruoha which Mr. Dibia claims as the original name for Ikwerre. What I know is that Ikwerres and other Igbo-speaking peoples of Rivers State call Igbos of the South-East Isoma and vice versa.

Furthermore, was Ikwerre ruled by the 19th century King Jaja of Opobo, an ex-slave from Amaigbo in Imo State who transformed to king of Opobo (Igwe Nga) in present-day Rivers State? Even so, that is not tantamount to colonization by Nd’Igbo. However, the case of Jaja shows that some of the present-day non-Igbo indigenes of Rivers and Bayelsa States may be descendants of Igbo slaves who escaped exportation overseas and settled in the midst of Ijaws, gradually acquiring a semblance of the latter. For instance, a friend of mine from a community in Yenagoa told me that Igbo words and expressions constitute about seventy percent of their vocabulary.

History has not credited the Aros (Ndi-Aru) with colonialism, as we know it, although many of them travelled and settled around several parts of Igboland and beyond as merchants of goods and slaves and messengers of the Long Juju. Prior to the advent of Christianity, the Long Juju was voluntarily employed by its Igbo and non-Igbo adherents for traditional adjudication, divination and resolution of spiritual problems; it was regarded then as the earthly abode of God (Ihu Chukwuabiama). Today, as a legacy of our interaction with Ndi-Aru, some families in my town bear names like Nwaru and Uzoaru, yet they neither colonized us nor had any settlement in my town.

Let Mr. Dibia tell us. Between what dates in history did Igbos colonize Ikwerres? Who were the Igbo administrators? Where, when and how did Nd’Igbo force Ikwerres to change their names? What are the non-Igbo names Ikwerres bore prior to the alleged colonization and forced name change? One wonders why Ikwerres have not changed Ogbako (Igbo word for gathering or meeting) to something like Rogbako to make it less Igbo. Did Nd’Igbo also “force” them in 1963 to use that word when they formed Ogbako Ikwerre Convention? Surprisingly, Mr. Dibia, whose surname is Igbo word for [native] doctor, neither told us if his first name Okachikwu is also an Igbo imposition nor gave the non-Igbo names of his ancestors. I can mention the names of all my ancestors up to the founder of my village around the 15th century!

Pray, in line with Mr. Dibia’s bizarre hypothesis of Igbo colonialism, did Nd’Igbo also colonize the Igbo-speaking peoples of Anioma in Delta State and Igbanke in Edo State? A friend from Igbanke informed me that his people should be part of Anioma in Delta State, but Dr. Samuel Ogbemudia whose mother hails from there influenced their being in Edo State. They bear Esan names, speak the language in order to be taken as such, yet their mother tongue is a dialect of Igbo. In his 18th century autobiography entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Writt

en By Himself, Olaudah Equiano, whose roots have been traced to somewhere around Edo and Delta States, declared unequivocally and proudly that he was Igbo! That is how it should be.

We know that every language has dialects which vary from each other. Some persons erroneously interpret these dialects as distinct languages, possibly because some dialects are so deep that indigenes of another community within the same race hardly understand them. But if all indigenes of the communities concerned understand the central language of the race, then they belong to that race. When the Ikwerre man speaks what he says is not Igbo language, the average Igboman who speaks Igbo understands him, even easier than some other Igbo dialects. A dispassionate look at the Ikwerre tongue shows that it is just a dialect of Igbo language. The inherent (not the recently invented) variations are understandable for a dialect, for same are equally noticeable among the Igbo communities in the South-East. The names of the Igbo four market days of Eke, Orie, Afor and Nkwo and pagan gods of Ala, Amadioha, Ojukwu, Agwu, etc are the same among Ikwerres.

There are available records showing that during the colonial era, Ikwerres and other Igbo-speaking communities of Rivers State related with the British colonialists under the name of Igbos. It was only after the Nigerian Civil War that they began renouncing any link to the Igbo race and altered the spellings and pronunciations of their names and towns to pass them off as non-Igbo. For instance, Amanweke, an original Ikwerre name was changed to Rumuokwuta to make it less Igbo. They did this to avoid being left out of the new Rivers State by Gowon’s regime, and to curry favour with the Ijaws who were given charge of the new state. There is even a rumour that the Ikwerres took an oath to do so. A maternal uncle of mine, who was born and bred in Port Harcourt, narrated how immediately after the Civil War an Ikwerre friend of his startled him by feigning ignorance of the Igbo language in which both of them had conversed previously!

There exist in some parts of Abia and Imo States two traditional dances called Eshe and Uko played during the funeral of elderly men and women, respectively. My grandfather, who died in 1988 at over a hundred years, told me that long before his birth, players of those dances, on invitation, travelled to Ikwerre and other Igbo-speaking parts of Rivers State to play same during funerals. I witnessed this when my eldest uncle who played Eshe travelled severally to Ikwerre and Etche to same. Could this have been possible barring any cultural and linguistic similarities between the communities involved? The same interactions which Mr. Dibia claims existed between Nd’Igbo and Ikwerres from the 16th century equally existed between Nd’Igbo and Ijaw and other non-Igbo communities of Rivers and Bayelsa States, yet they do not share the same cultural and linguistic similarities with Igbos as Ikwerres. However, a legacy of this interaction is that some of these peoples bear Igbo names such as Nwokoma, Chukwuemeka, Ebere, Odo, etc, just as some Igbos in Abia and Imo States bear their names such as Amakiri, Igbani, Gogo, Cookey, Ubani and Igoni.

My grandfather told me that before 1913 when Lord Lugard gave it its current name, Port Harcourt was called Igwe Ocha. Let Mr. Dibia refute this, and also tell us if Ikwerres objected to the name imposition by the British. When he claimed that Ikwerres bear Ovunda while the Igbos bear Obinna, he lumped two things together. The name Obi in Igbo means either heart or house; thus Obinna literally means either father’s heart or father’s house. In some Igbo dialects, obi in the second sense is referred to as ovu or obu which also denotes the central living-room in a man’s compound, usually detached from other houses therein. I doubt if ovu has a different meaning among the Ikwerres. The name Amadi is popularly borne by the Ikwerres, just like in Imo and Abia States. It is the short form of Amadioha (Igbo pagan god of thunder) and figuratively means a (free) man. Let Mr. Dibia tell us the distinct meaning it has among the Ikwerres. In Mbaise, Ngwa and Arochukwu, the second child in a family is called Nwulu or Ulunwa; in Ikwerre it is Worlu or Orlunwo.

I expected Mr. Dibia to provide a cast-iron evidence of the non-Igbo origin of the Ikwerres. Barring such, it is hard to believe that the Ikwerres and other Igbo-speaking communities outside the South-East are not Igbos. It is a known fact that as an ethnic group spreads geographically, several variations emerge in its language. Again, communities on the border between two ethnic groups most times find themselves being receptacles of conflicting cultures and languages. Mr. Dibia should know that the fact that Ikwerres opposed the NCNC’s nomination of a non-indigene to represent Port Harcourt in an elective post is not enough to give them the status of a distinct ethnic group. When Enugu State was created, its indigenes asked other Igbos to leave their public service. Even some Lagosians opposed the appointment of fellow Yorubas from other states into Bola Tinubu’s cabinet.

By dismissing appearance, language and name while preferring character alone as the determinant of a people’s race, Mr. Dibia seems to suggest that a particular ethnic group in North-Central Nigeria where husbands allegedly offer their wives and daughters to cherished male guests is of the same race with the Eskimos of Eurasia who reportedly exhibit a similar character. It also follows from his postulation that since Nd’Igbo are republican and egalitarian like the Greeks, they both belong to the same ethnic stock. This will be a great assault on logic. He forgot that even siblings have distinct characters. Happily, there are some Ikwerre people who admit the truth of their Igbo identity. Currently an Ikwerre man is the 3rd Vice-President of Ohanaeze Ndigbo, the pan-Igbo socio-cultural organisation.

Perhaps, Ikwerres had hoped to be taken as non-Igbos upon renouncing their Igbo identity, only to face the reality that no matter how strong in flight a butterfly is, it is not a bird! Now, they and others in the same boat are victims of self-induced identity crisis which the likes of Mr. Dibia are perpetuating. I am proud of my Igbo identity; God forbid that I should turn myself into a bat, neither air nor land animal! What, however, I cannot explain is the hatred the Ikwerres have for Igbos, exemplified by Mr. Dibia’s malicious and unproven accusation of “the ill activities of the Igbo in Ikwerre”. They were willing allies of the Ijaws in the formulation and implementation of the anti-Igbo Abandoned Property policy at the end of the Nigerian Civil War. A very amusing argument by Mr. Dibia is that Ikwerres are better endowed than Nd’Igbo, a spurious claim for which he supplied no supporting statistics. I assume he has the enormous crude oil reserves in Rivers State in mind for his claim.

However, the admission or denial by Ikwerres or any other Igbos of their true race will neither enhance nor derogate from the status of Nd’Igbo. Nevertheless, in line with Mr. Dibia’s emotional plea, let Ikwerres and others of that hue be whatever and whoever they now claim to be. But my father told me that in spite of its unsightly appearance and feeding habits, the vulture (udele in Igbo) is still a bird; and despite the beautiful yellow-black stripes of a particular species of rat (called oguru in some parts of Imo and Abia States) it is still a rat.

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Tamaraye June 23, 2021 - 8:04 pm

Mr poster…the original name of the land city before It was called Port Harcourt was obomotu and not igwe ocha the 1913 treaty document signed with the cheifs who lived in the land during that period doesn’t bare the name igwe ocha but obom otu…And it originated from the Abuloma people igwe ocha was the name the igbos who came to trade in the city gave it due to its beautiful and arranged environment go and search the name Obomotu and stop distorting history..
One thing about you igbos wether you like it or not is that fact that you like claiming territories just because you where accepted there and acultured to them or they where acultured to you… you look for every little similarity you have with a tribe and the next thing you label the tribe igbo you don’t do that and let me tell you opobo land is not and will never be igbo… opobo are ibani and they speak igbo due to the fact that ibo slaves intermixed with them and they refused to teach the slaves ibani which is their true dilect instead they opted to learn igbo and mind you they didn’t learn igbo for just learning sake but for the reason of been able to Keep track of what the slaves where communicating about and for trade purposes and even now they don’t speak pure igbo..they sepak igbo with ibani mixture in it.
Opobo are ijaws and not igbo
Thank you!

L December 10, 2021 - 11:41 am

He never said Opobo was igbo, he only mentioned its first king (jaja) was igbo.

Michael Egonu June 13, 2021 - 12:59 pm

It is unbelievable how you let somebody into house and all of a sudden he or she turns around to claim you and your house.That is what exactly the Igbo claim of Rivers State is about.The Igbo man’s cold war with the southern did not start today,they have being on that war Since before 1800, Man wey no, no,who pass is a fool for ever.

jojo February 28, 2021 - 4:52 am

I think everyone should read this study. Ikwerre people are half Bini and half Igbo. This is proper scientific study, not one based on sentiments.

Heartsmansen January 21, 2021 - 2:21 pm

Thank you very much Barrister Ogu for that strong and convincing rejoinder. I want to believe the group of Ikwerre people denouncing their Igbo identity are doing so for some covert parochial interest. What they fail to understand is that blood is thicker than water. It will amount to effort in futility resorting to twisting, distorting, and erasing completely fundamental facts which define and classify a group into an ethnic identity.

ekpemandu remigius August 1, 2020 - 8:31 am

i have made my research. the ikwerres have strong ancestorial link with the igbos. even there claim that their ancestors are from bini are faulty because AKALALA is not binin word but igbo word, OCHICHI, akalaka second brother is an igbo name. please is there any where igbos captured akalaka and ochichi and changed their original bini names to igbo names. the son of AKALAKA is iwhuruoha( ihuorah, ihuoha, iwuruoha) an igbo name depending on dialect which means the face of the people in igbo, akalaka story was captured in the 15th century, when he migrated from western igbo territory(today igbo deltans) to ogba as a worrior to fight for the people of ogba(igbos). he met people on ground who are indigenous, he married one of the igbo indigene and gave birth to uwhuruoha who migrated to present day ikwerre. from my research, before the arrival of iwhuorah, the people of obio/akpo, ibaa, umuepke and the opko wagidi that formed the isiokpo kingdom( from aro) has been existing since 13th cencury. He was made the head to see for political relationship between his people and white colonies. he became femous among the communities and ruled as king(EZE) until the day he joined his ancestors. from my finding there is no relationship between bennin and ikwerri people but they have with the igbos…. some claim they came out from etche, yes that might be true but the etches are igbo people, the community that houses the amadioha of an igbo pegant god till today. if etche claim they are not igbos, then who relocated the shrine of amadioha from igbo land to etche land. igbos in the riverines should tell themselves the truth….. etche, ikwerre and others should wake up. the war is over, u denied ur igbo origin to claim convenient, not to be killed and marginalized, what about now, reunite with ur brothers and form a strong force to wage political war against the north and west who are milking u dry….

TJ July 24, 2016 - 9:55 pm


A dead man do not know thet he is dead, but every one knows . The same thing applies when a man is stupid.

All those that claim they are not Igbos but speak and answer Igbo names are consistently mocked down by the wise Yorubas & Housa for fooling themselves. The mockery alone is enough to explain above adage. One Delta Ibo man told me that no Housa man has ever accepted his claim of non Igbo identity. How can Mr. Okafor convince an Housa man or Yorubas that he is not an Ibo? Those Yorubas & Housas are not foolish, they are wise. Please let us stop fooling ourselves and provoking God.

Here is my question: Is this how we can move Niigeria Forward? If you keep vibrating noise everywhere making claims of non Igbo origin, please that is your own headache. Responsible Delta Ibos and Ikwere communities do not lay hold on this useless claim. Your claim does not minus anything from the great Igbo nation or add any promotion to your existence. You are only being unpatriotic by promoting SECTIONILSM.

Know this, your claim of being a non Igbo do not mean anything to an Igbo man or woman. Igbos are another wonderful creatures God has formed in this world. They are very fearless, unique in knowledge, socialism, boldness, creativity, industry, wisdom, marriage, enterprise, etc etc.. THE EVIDENCE IS VERY CLEAR. God has made them like that and there is nothing any man can do about it. The entire world do comment about them including the Housas & Yorubas. Their uniqueness is very unimaginable.

It is not enough to disclaim your Igbo identity. You should be ready to withdraw your tongue from using Igbo dialect and also stop answering Mr. Chukwu, Okereke, Chinedu, Okafor, Ngozi, Chiamaka, etc . Since you are not Ibos, you must prove to the world by speaking the dialect of that particular tribe you traced your origin.

Igbos do not disown you from being their brothers and sisters. While they embrace you with passion as being same, why are you causing division while still exchanging marriages that even bring you more closer? Let us move Nigeria forward and stand
in unity. All these confusions will do more harm than good.

Leonard Orji Offor December 22, 2018 - 8:41 am

Thanks bro, you completely nailed it. I lives in Sweden and have travelled to Finland in a numbers of occasion and in all the island in Finland is inhabited by the ethnic Swedish people and even though their geological location is located in Finland, yet their so proud to tell you that their Swedish origins. If you are looking for a job in their own controlled part of Finland and if you do not speak Swedish language, just forget about it because they give their language a serious priority and without it you can’t have a job. The issues regarding the Ikweres and Delta Igbos is that many of them is highly deluded and suffering what is called identity crisis. This issue with identify crisis is that it’s can be passed from one generation to another and this is exactly what the Ikweres mainly is suffering.

IZUNDA FRED May 22, 2016 - 3:58 pm


Amadiohha May 11, 2012 - 11:10 am

I am impressed with this article. To me, whether the Ikwerre, Agbors or Kwalis admit their origin or not, in my heart, I will always believe them to be Igbo. Period.

simple February 10, 2011 - 8:42 am

Im imo, Im not Igbo. I ask Jesus to prove me otherwise, lol

jaokhan August 12, 2010 - 12:53 pm

Thank you Tony. But saying you are from Ndele and supporting the notion that the ikwerres are igbos is not enough to prove that they are. I have been dating my Spanish girlfriend these past 2years but even our formidable coition isn’t enough for either of us to claim to be anti-racist.

I’m not being sentimental- ONLY LANGUAGE links the ikwerres to the ibos but we have neither shared beliefs nor values irrespective of Political zoning. A people can have similar culture with another and yet belong to different geographical regions. This isn’t the case however with the ikwerres and the ibos.

Mr Tony, I’m a Research assistant at a very good University in the Uk and currently consult for AECOM. I really like the ibos so much but claims without PLAUSIBLE proofs dont appeal to me, I’m sorry! YOU CANNOT COMPLETELY ASSOCIATE A PEOPLE’S ROOT TO ANOTHER JUST MERELY BASED ON LANGUAGE, PLEASE.

And by the way, where do the ibos hail from?

Leonard Offor December 22, 2018 - 7:55 am


Tony August 3, 2010 - 7:08 am

Sir you have more political interpretation and not definition of culture based on your notion on the above article. I am from Ndele in Ikwerre. Sir Joakhan bear it in mind that we are Igbos by its definition and practices. The only destinction that makes it difficult is the creation of states as a means to dustablise the Biafran aims. Early mistake and moreover education from our early Ikwerre elites had made it difficult for us to believe in our root. Please leave behind the odd sentiment based on in-doctrinisation and look at the fact of the day without asking the citation. I bet you that if by tomorrow Elele will be carved to Imo state, our brotherhood with them will automatically relinquished to be like what we have today between our Igbo brothers. So Joakhan this is politics.

jaokhan August 1, 2010 - 5:07 pm

Dear Ikechukwu,

Why is it that there is NO PUBLISHED REFERENCE to support any of your points? You should know better as an author, please!

Oh sorry, I started out a bit harshly, cos I’m IKWERRE NOT IBO! (lol)

I have perused through your article and noted your point – which is based on language and geo-location. First of all, there are two possibilities to this issue- that the ikwerres hail from the ibos; that the ikwerres and ibos both hail from the same origin; or that the ibos hail from the ikwerres(uuuhhhh! that didn’t go well with you, did it?). The only strong point of link between the ibos and ikwerres are: geo-location and language which you rightly mentioned. Considering the former, Nigeria as a nation is encompassed by five francophone countries, yet they neither behave like us nor we like them. So geo-location is not a strong enough plausible point to relate two different people to a race, my friend.

Secondly, on the basis of language, the ikwerres and the ibos both speak ‘’igboloid’’, not ‘’igbo’’. while you have only stated the strongest possible reason as language, note that it takes more than a language to define a people. For e.g: Cameroonians speak french and english but they are neither French nor English!

Culture is what defines a person better and Language is PART of a peoples culture!

The oxford Dictionary defines culture as a follows:

People with SHARED BELIEFS and PRACTICES: a group of people whose SHARED BELIEFS AND PRACTICES identify the particular place, class, or time to which they belong.

Like you know, the ikwerres do not share similar cultures with the ibos. They worship different gods, observe burials, marriages, meetings, businesses entirely differenctly etc (i can go on) and even the way their houses are built are different from those of the easterners. A typical ikwerre man’s attitude which is a reflection of his culture which in turn defines his race is unique.

Look I have references for this but, i thought to take a break from my work and chat with you. I shall provide references when next you do. Please, may I ask, where the ibos hail from? Rather than bother about the ikwerres, I’ll concentrate on where I hail, if I were you. Sorry, for any ‘’tribalistic’’ undertone.

jojo February 28, 2021 - 4:45 am

@jaokhan I am Ikwerre also. But I want to ask you, how did Ikwerres start speaking Igbo language? Did Igbo’s colonise Ikwerre? I mean, how dis we end up speaking a language so close to Igbo without any form of colonization?

And your comparison with Cameoonians speaking French but are not French makes no sense. Cameroon was colonised by France, so we know how they ended up speaking French. But what you are saying is that Ikwerre have nothing to do with Igbo but share the same names etc. So how did Ikwerre start speaking Igbo? Did the Igbo colonise Ikwerre like the French colonised Cameroon?

Please make some sense of this argument.

Ned December 10, 2021 - 12:03 pm

The igbos in Abakaliki also build houses differently from the igbos in anambra and co. Igbos in Abia speak almost a completely distinct language too, why are they igbo?, its an ethnic group consisting of various tribes some with unique cultures like in Ebonyi. Even “Anioma” villages and people can be found in Imo and Anambra. typical example is Oguta. Its like saying the people of Greenland aren’t viking or the Okun people in Kogi are not Yoruba. Or the Nkwerre in Imo are not igbo or the Owerre aren’t igbo either. What about the Egbema? Like i said feel free to identify as whatever you wish to, it would be more convenient if you also completely drop all igbo affiliations in language and naming too.

KAY April 22, 2010 - 1:41 pm

My brother u spoke well, tell same to the people of Agbor, Ukwani and their likes. there is this girl from Agbor who claims she’s not Igbo, yet her name is Nkem, her brother’s chuks. Even the hausas and other tribes call her ibo or delta ibo. Pls tell them, they can not sell their identity.

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