Assuredly, a nuclear free world would be a peaceful one. Perhaps, the application of psycho-metric intelligence to the issues concerning nuclear disarmament could serve the purpose of providing predictive validity, when the prospects and problems of a nuclear-free world becomes the subject of discussion between pacifists and militarists.
Although the United Nations declaration proclaimed the 1980s as the Second Disarmament Decade, Reagan’s STAR WARS programmes hindered the prospects of mobilizing world opinion on behalf of peace and disarmament.
Between 1930 and 1939, nations made frantic attempts to effect multilateral control of arms. They agreed on humanitarian rules of war and signed naval and peace treaties. The 1922 Washington Treaty, the 1930 and 1936 London Treaties were very comprehensive and regulatory.
The Western European states and the US were very apprehensive of the Soviet block nations, whose internationalism posed a threat to them, since the declared aim of the Soviet Union was to spread socialist revolution world-wide.
In 1929, there was a proposal for the supervision of arms trade. Earlier, some conventions were signed to regulate arms production. The First Disarmament Conference produced the General Treaty for the renunciation of war, known as the Brian-Kellogg Pact. It was signed in Paris, in 1928.
This was followed in 1932, by the Disarmament Conference, which examined in detail the various Commissions, the establishment of a system of collective security, the limitation of the strength of the armed forces, limitation of land, naval and air armaments, limitation of national defence expenditures, prohibition of chemical, incendiary and bacteriological warfare, control of arms manufacture and trade, supervision and guarantees of the implementation of the obligations by the parties, “moral disarmament” intended to create an atmosphere favourable to the peaceful solution of international problems.(Jozef Goldblat, Agreements for Arms Control, page 7).
The quest for a nuclear-free world will discover that a lot of work had already been done by disarmament scholars and diplomats but as result of the love for belligerency by some states, efforts made in this regard have been neglected.
While the League of Nations had an elaborate mechanism for disarmament, the United Nations, which has been under the influence of powerful states, that patronize arms manufacturers have not been very willing to deal with both moral disarmament and general disarmament.
The Obama Prague statement on a nuclear-free world will promote critical appraisal of the thorny issues involved in the all-important subject.
Nuclear disarmament was a subject the US government took seriously in the 1950s.The US, under the Baruch Plan; put forward the ideas that would have assisted the efficient working of the Atomic Energy Commission, especially the control of the production of uranium-235 as well as plutonium.
The Soviet response virtually killed the Baruch Plan. The Soviets, in typical Cold War rhetoric suggested the complete destruction of all atomic weapons within three months. The “Atom for Peace” plan, which President Dwight Eisenhower proposed in 1953, was also rejected by the Soviets, Western disarmament programmes proposed by European states between 1954 and 1955, were better received but their implementations suffered inexorably. A lot of disarmament treaties fell into disuse.
The 1955 Geneva Summit and the Arms Control Conferences of 1958 were the handiwork of scholars, nuclear scientists and Atomic agency officials. They harped on the principle of balance, reduction of armed forces and conventional armaments, nuclear disarmament, verification and peace-keeping.
UN member states undertook obligations in the various arms control agreement. There were restrictions on nuclear weapons testing, in 1963, a multilateral Partial Test Ban Treaty disallowed any nuclear explosions “in the atmosphere, outer space or under water”.
It can be recalled that France, in a recalcitrant, defiant mood, tested atomic bombs in the Sahara desert in 1956, which caused influenza.
We could not go to school for quite sometime as there was much sneezing and headaches amongst our pupils.
In 1976, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty was promulgated. Much later, it was discovered that under the shibboleth of “peaceful use”, more sinister programmes were on the various drawing boards in states’ nuclear laboratories.
As other states like India, Pakistan, South Africa, laid their hands on nuclear technology, uncertainty and fear gripped the world. Matters got to a head during the presidency of George W. Bush.
After his “axis of evil “speech, in which he pilloried Iran, North Korea and Iraq, the Iranians and North Koreans were pushed to engage in nuclear arms production and acquisition. Primary mental abilities were prodded by necessity to high grade intelligence. It is generally accepted that necessity is the mother of invention and that necessity knows no law.
The functions and significance of arms control cannot be over-stated. A major conflict could be started by inadvertence, accident, negligence or miscalculation or even by evil machination.
This is why nuclear arms proliferation is an ill-wind that does no-one any good. There are many problems associated with how to dispense with the well-stocked nuclear arsenal of “civilized states” of the world.
Jozef Goldblat in commenting on the prospects of nuclear disarmament in 1982, wrote that” the ultimate goal of all peaceful endeavours is to abolish the use of force in inter-state relations by eliminating the instruments of war”
“One good omen, he wrote, is the growing public concerns about the dangers of the arms race. Questions of arms control have ceased to be matters of interest to governments alone”. Jozef Goldblat concluded.
It was, therefore, not surprising that when George W. Bush sought to re-enact the ideological propaganda war between the US and Russia, he met with Putin’s resistance.
The American voters gave a resounding victory to Barack Obama, who firmly decided to cut a new path for American diplomacy in the Era of the Gentles, Atonement and the Brotherhood of Man.
I am persuaded that human mental abilities cannot be evaluated using colour and racial indices. Bartlett, Galton and Professor C.E Spearman and all those Caucasians engaged in Intelligence Research and Assessments should relocate the epicenter of their intellectual efforts using the new Obamas phenomena.
In HIS benevolence and gratuitous disposition, the TRIUNE GOD did not deny the gift of intelligence to any race. Man-made actions, through wickedness and vanity have put enormous burdens in the development of Intelligence among social groups.
When I visited the Lauterpacht Center for International Law at the University of Cambridge, England in 2007, I communicated with my English, German, Russian and Chinese colleagues, in their languages. When I “mischievously” spoke my Afenmai language to them, during a discussion, they were overwhelmed.
Those scientists, who measure intelligence based on language abilities alone, have my condolences.
“The “three-stratum (Carrol, 1993) account of human ability differences is nowadays referred to as “theory” (Bickley et al, 1995; Bouchard, 1998). It is rather a taxonomy that construes co-variance into different-sized packages that serve the purposes of providing predictive validity and the substrate for explanatory science” (Ian J.Deary and Pauline Smith, 2004. Cambridge University Press.)
When Darwin goofed, reverence prevented the academia from hitting him in his knuckles. Time and tide have turned his “theories” into shreds. Unfortunately, there are people,
who are of the same opinion still. They are opposed to disarmament.
President Barack Obama has provided the evidence that an integrated approach to international relations is the best way to achieve success in contentious matters.
Diplomacy remains the art of negotiations and forging consensus, which are meant to produce incremental effects over time. The Havana Convention on Diplomatic and Consular Relations and Immunity of 1928, enhanced international relations considerably.
President Barack Obama’s diplomatic style and well-thought out speeches signify informed approach to rapprochement.
Militarists and extreme right-wing American politicians and loud-mouthed pundits are canvassing the view that the idea of a nuclear-free world could inevitably be the victim of the US President’s over-numerous intentions.
This attitude seems to be the outcome of a belief that moral philosophy has no place in power politics. Some have even written as if moral concepts lead to weakness. This is false.
It is understandable though that states that have ruled the world should feel a bit uncomfortable when they are asked to seek accommodation with other states.
Those journalists, who are restricted to the treadmill of Von Clausewitz, Machiavelli, Dick Cheney John McCain, Donald Rumsfeld, are wont to remain scare-crows till time indefinite.
In the Era of the Gentiles, Atonement and the Brotherhood of Man, equality, mutuality, comitas gentium, the ability to listen and understand others’ stories must prevail.
The human feelings of affection which the Queen of England, Her Royal Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II and the US first Lady, Mrs. Michelle Obama displayed during the Obamas visit to Buckingham Palace became the topic for negative discussions among the Clan of World Witches and Luciferians.
The TRIUNE GOD will continue to overturn nihilistic attitudes and vices.
We appreciate the fact that those who lost out in the last US Presidential elections would adopt underhand tactics, stabs in the back to discredit Obamas’ genuine efforts to shape a new international system through negative comments, scary depositions and hate-rich pontifications of transient and inconsequential value. They will continue to be disproved by better logic and positive actions.
A nuclear-free world is a long-time project. The time to start doing something about is now. The Russians say,” Schem Chot ni shutit!”
As this Era progresses, people will come to understand the work of Superior Beings, who have taken over the affairs of our race. It is well.