Africa & Beyond

70 Years of the UN: Critical Successes & Dismal Failures in the Era of the Antichrist (2)

Worldwide, the dismal failure of ideology in primitive societies, feudal societies, capitalist societies and the old socialist order in the 21st century, is responsible for the infantile disorder in our dangerous world of wars without end. The world must embrace sociocracy! –Emmanuel Omoh Esiemokhai.

A sage once asked, “The atomic age in here to stay,

But are we?”

“And then I heard the Aquarian Cherubim and Seraphim proclaim the Gospel of the coming Age, the age of wisdom of the Son of Man”.

But anti-Christ has given the wrong wisdom to his agents, whose mission is the destruction of human beings, as we are witnessing in the 21st century.

Fukusima, Long Island, Tianjin could happen anywhere either by design or default, advertently or inadvertently.

With internecine local and international wars raging with satanic ferocity, Albert Einstein was right when he said that the atom bomb has changed everything, we are drifting towards catastrophe.

In the last twenty years the agents of the Anti-Christ have caused a lot of human misery.

This has not abated but is raging. Since that Norwegian anti-Christ murdered over seventy young people and was pampered to remain alive, shootings have been rampart.

Race hatred has increased States are crumbling from within. The whole world is in motion towards the end-time turbulence.

Image: Geralt on
Image: Geralt on

The anti-Christ aims at the stultification of the development of advanced spiritual consciousness through vulgar music, seductive films, lurid behaviour, and the promotion of debauchery using “Calamity News Networks” print media, on-line.

Obscene communications, interviews with artists, Musicians, actors and actresses, while side-tracking intellectuals and thinkers.

Wars and disasters are gleefully reported in hyperboles as “shows” and “entertainment”. This is the Age of the anti-Christ! These sufferings as a result of terrorism, wars and social dislocation will intensity until our Lord Jesus Christ comes down with his saints in bright array.

These are the End-times.

In the realm of the spirit, it has been disclosed that in the first quarter of the 21st century, seven anti-Christ agents will re-enact the Hitler-Hirohito-Mussolini saga. Two have died, but five have been active. The end-time has come with massive social dislocation, refugee problems and heartless killings are prevalent.

The Cherubim’s and the Seraphim’s will continue to intervene to avert the catastrophe that is the portion of mankind in the Era of the anti-Christ.

Woe betides the agents of the anti-Christ.


During colonialism, the relationship between imperialist States and Afro Asian and Latin American States was that of political oppression and economic exploitation through the use of monopoly capital. In the early years of capitalism, Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, Great Britain encouraged and participated actively in the colonization of America, Africa and Asia.

Between the 15th and 18th Centuries the colonialists enriched their nations by monopolizing the foreign trade of their colonial territories. The workers in the colonial territories were made to work strenuously in the plantations and in mines.

Where the colonial powers met with justified resistance, they declared unjust wars, captured the local population and made them prisoners. Some were sold into slavery while the rest were subdued and made to do dangerous and physically demanding jobs. The use of force is characteristic of all colonialist and imperialist nations. They employ force to liquidate progressive elements in the colonies and eventually capture State Power. Spain and Portugal embarked upon building colonial empires after the Great Geographical Discoveries (at the end of the 15th to 16 centuries). Spanish plunderers invaded and sacked countries in Central and South America e.g… Peru,

They enslaved the local population and without any justification killed tens of thousands of people who resisted colonial rule. Those patriots died unsung and un-renowned. The plantations and gold mines, which were unsafe, took their toll on helpless natives who were forced to work. Many were manhandled for minor offences.

PORTUGAL: Portugal colonized strategic regions along the sea routes to Arabia, Iran, Africa, and India. Furthermore, she captured the route through the Malaysian peninsular to China and Japan. Portuguese colonial policies were a catalogue of systemic execution of people in the colonies. Although Spain and Portugal extracted wealth from their colonies, this did not foster capitalist economic relationship, especially as the wealth was concentrated in the hands of feudal lords, the royal families and the Catholic Church. Money was spent on aggressive wars. The greater part of the wealth from the colonies was not kept in Spain and Portugal but used to purchase luxury goods in the more advanced countries of Europe, including Netherlands and Great Britain.

When the elite of these two nations saw the amount of wealth being thrown around by Spanish merchants, they too, embarked on ambitious geographical expeditions to enable them get at the riches of Asia, Africa and America.

HOLLAND: In the first half of the 17th century, the Dutch colonialists captured Portuguese maritime routes in Africa and Asia. In 1603, they became a force to reckon with in Java, and by 1641 had established themselves in the Malaysian peninsular.

They drove away the Portuguese from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1658. The Colonial exploits of Holland had very little impact in North and South Africa. The Dutch used these territories   only for slave trading and as platform   attack to Spanish territories in those parts of the world.

BRITAIN: After the Anglo-Dutch wars of second of half of the 17th century, Great Britain became the most advanced colonial power as a result of the bourgeois revolutions, which activated the development of manufacturing industries. The industrial Revolution received a shot in the arm because colonies were easy outlets for manufactured goods and sources of cheap raw materials.

Britain expanded territorially not only at the expense of France but also at the expense of its other allies, including Germany. In 1795, Colonial Britain relieved the Dutch of Ceylon (Sri Lanka). She later conquered Malaysia, Singapore and temporarily occupied Dutch territory in Java while pushing to colonize Australia.

GENOCIDE: In the process of their colonial adventurism, European colonialists liquidated many natives of North America (Indians), Australian Blacks and the natives of New Zealand. In some cases, they turned them into slaves or made serfs out of them. This savage treatment meted out to the natives of these various territories was carried out in the name of civilization.

Colonialism distorted the historical process of development of the unfortunate colonial people worldwide. It achieved this by imposing foreign values and a counterfeit culture upon the indigenous people in the 19th century, industrial capitalism opened the period of acute colonial exploitation through the use of industrial capitalism which saw the conversion of the colonies into lucrative markets for manufactured goods. The colonies were drawn into unequal exchange with the metropolis.

The export of cheap manufactured products sent the local producers into liquidation and consequently, they lived in penury. Another method of colonial exploitation was the retention of the old forms of extortion through taxation, monopoly of foreign trade and war booties. During the period of industrial capitalism, the colonialists directed their aggression to new lands. Towards 1856, the British attacked India and Lower Burma. With the support France and America, Britain waged the so-called Opium War against China from 1839 – 1842

This has the effect of turning China almost into a colony (see Nanking Treaty of 1842). British colonialists carried out aggression against Afghanistan (1838 to 1842), Iran (1856 to 1857) and captured strategic points on the bank of the Arabian Peninsula. The historical lesson from this survey is that Britain has a record of colonial exploits and pillage. British adventure in Iraq in 2003 followed the familiar pattern of her colonial wars in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.


Draft Declaration on Rights and Duties of States.

Whereas the States of the world form a community governed by international law,

Whereas the progressive development of International law requires effective organization of the community of States,

Whereas a great majority of the States of the world have accordingly established a new international order under the Charter of the United Nations, and most of the other States of the world have declared their desire to live within this order,

Whereas a primary purpose of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security, and the reign of law and justice is essential to the realization of this purpose, and Whereas it is therefore desirable to formulate certain basic rights and duties of States in the light of new developments of international law and in harmony with the Charter of United Nations, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopts and proclaims this Declaration on Rights and Duties of States:

Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for International Wrongful Acts.

Article 1 Responsibility of a State for its internationally wrongful acts

Every internationally wrongful act of a State entails the international responsibility of that State.

Article 2 Elements of an internationally wrongful act of a State

There is an internationally wrongful act of a State when conduct consisting of an action or commission:

  1. Is attributable to the State under international law; and
  2. Constitutes a breach of an international obligation of the State.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Whereas the people of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and woman and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the importance for the full realization of this pledge.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

The States Parties to the present Covenant Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights, as well as his civil and political rights, considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations rights,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant, Agree upon the following articles 1-34.

The international legal rules and norms have formed part of Jus cogens and are often referred to by parties at the International Court Justice at The Hague.


Contemporary international legal problems of significance have revolved, in the last twenty years, around issues of human rights, the people’s rights and the right of nations to self-determination. The resultant effects of disrespect for these categories of rights have been instability within the system, refugee problems, social dislocation, hunger, disease and death.

It is a credit to human rights activists worldwide that both domestic and international legislations on issues concerning human rights have continued to be given priority attention in contemporary international law and society.

Agreeing or disagreeing with some of our positions on the issues concerning racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance, depends largely on the thickness of the prism with which one views the developments in world history and on which side one stands in the struggles between the oppressor and the oppressed, the exploiter and the exploited, the slave-owner and the slave, the supper-powers brandishing nuclear weapons and the powerless states.

In my look “Human Rights in International Law”, (Ann Arbor, Mich, 1992), I highlighted the nagging issues, which the Durban Conference later dealt with. I traced the development of International Human Rights Law since 1945, the United Nations and Human Rights, the European, American and African Human Rights Systems, the Military and the State, Enforcement of Human Rights, some impediments to Human Rights Protection, Human Rights in South Africa during Apartheid, Human Rights and Terrorism, the Rights of Nations to self-determination as well as other topics.

I sent this book to then Governor of Arkansas, Bill Clinton in 1992, which he thankfully acknowledged in a letter. Bill Clinton assisted in sponsoring the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, Austria in 1993. Fortunately, the struggle for the protection of Human Rights has always found favour among leading Euro-American, Asia and Afro American-Caribbean intellectuals and politicians. However, the “immediate, Pre-charter influence” can be traced to that famous American President, Theodore Roosevelt, who, in January 1941, in an address to Congress proclaimed the four freedoms of speech, of religion, from want and from fear.

Also Prime Minister Winston Churchill demanded that “racial persecution must end” Both Winston Churchill and Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed the Atlantic Charter in August 1941 and January 1, 1942, 26 allied countries joined in a “Declaration by the United Nations”. Although Roosevelt advanced the cause of international protection of Human Rights globally, he was not as successful in combating the discrimination of blacks in America.

United Nations and Human Rights

“The preamble to the United Nations Charter” re-affirms faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human persons, in the equal rights of men and women and of Nations large and small. All the declarations, Conventions and Covenants passed worldwide in last the sixty years merely amplify these norms as stated in the Charter’s preamble.

The defence of Human Rights is the primary purpose of modern International Human Rights Law. Article 55 of the United Nations Charter urges Nations to promote “Universal respect for and observance of Human Rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion”. In order to ensure the achievement of these goals, the United Nations and Member-States have organized international conferences to sensitise both the people and governments to respect human rights.

The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations has regulated legal issues involved in labour and industrial relations, which have facilitated the work of the International Labour Organization and International Arbitration. The United Nations Declaration Regarding Non-Self Governing Territories advocated the respect for the well being of the Nations under colonialism and apartheid. It assisted tremendously in the decolonization process especially in the struggle against apartheid.

It is very significant that United Nations Conference took place in Durban, South Africa. Human memory is very short and in the case of South Africa painfully so. It is too much to ask the South Africans, to forget the evils of apartheid even when the current movement is towards forgiveness.

A techno-juristic examination of the evils of apartheid etches an indelible mark on the psyche. Apartheid was a well-orchestrated state policy of racism, racial discrimination and intolerance based on a pseudo-Christian ideology, adorned with bigotry and mindless violence. It encouraged and institutionalized the exploitation of black people, through a system of oppressive laws, like the Group Areas Act, the Bantustan policy and obnoxious laws, which made apartheid a “manifestly inhuman legal and political order”.

In the dismantling of apartheid, one must acknowledge the work of the United Nations International Law Commission that spearheaded many draft resolutions, which later became universally accepted conventions by the community of states in the world. Tribute must be paid to the Soviet Union, China and Cuba, for their military assistance to Liberation Movements of Azania, Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Guinea Bissau, etc.

The works of Michael Parren, Emmanuel Urhobo, Kelvin Danaher, Charles Kraut Hammer, Elizabeth Schmidt Harrel, Joan and Rothrmeyer provided the intellectual basis for the struggle against apartheid. The Nigerian Government’s 1977 Conference against Apartheid, organized by the Military Government of General Olusegun Obasanjo provided a forum for worldwide condemnation of apartheid by the commonwealth, the United Nations and individuals. Nigerian and Commonwealth responses to apartheid complemented the field action at the time and it drew international support for the action against apartheid.

The Durban UN conference has expanded the scope of the struggle to “xenophobia and intolerance”. Both are caused by the evil machinations of men’s heart. One hopes that as the Aquarian Age progresses, more beneficent outpourings of cosmic benediction would enable man to realize that the Cosmic Christ in him will not permit injurious vices, which violate human dignity.

The progressive development of human rights consciousness under the auspices of the United Nations and the constitutions of democratic states will elevate the ideals of human right to overcome the incidents of xenophobia as one is witnessing in Europe. States should regard xenophobia as an unfriendly act and a matter for consideration by the International Criminal Court.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial discrimination should be widened to include all forms of xenophobia, bigotry and intolerance. Such matters, where they become too rampant should be included among the issues over which the International Criminal Court should exercise jurisdiction. Such matters should form the nucleus of a revised Supplementary Geneva Convention of September 7, 1956 for the abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery (e.g. serfdom, debt bondage, prostitution, xenophobia and intolerance).

It was suggested that the Durban Conference should declare “Contracts which conflict with human rights as illegal and invalid on the grounds of public policy” (see Drumond Wren 1945 40 R. 778). Enforcement of resolutions, which come out of the Durban Conference by way of resolutions or conventions, should be applied at the International Criminal Court, if violations of a legal nature are established. The time has come when the propriety of the actions of nations and their governments should be put to test of international standards. In Nigeria, ethnic and class antagonism, partisanship, corrupt leadership, irredentism, all affect in a negative way, the promotion of human rights. Tribal, Religions and other base affiliations have not moved the nation forward. Our political economy cannot guarantee the rights enshrined in our constitution.

The Durban UN Conference did not yield much in view of the preliminary objections raised by the United States of America on the issue of imperialism, racism, racial discrimination and problems concerning reparations for historical injustice through slavery, the slave trade and colonialism.

The mechanism for the struggle against xenophobia and related intolerance must be enforced with sanctions. Although a purely juristic approach to the human-issues of xenophobia and intolerance may fall short of the advancement evinced at this point in time, there is perhaps no other alternative now than to enforce the outcome of the conference in a more proactive manner by creating a standing body to monitor the pattern of xenophobia and related intolerance. The wider international community must insist that the incidence of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance should be severely minimized by state legislative action.

If acts xenophobia and intolerance are not checked now, these issues could mar international relations in the 21st century because the victims of these vices are becoming irritated. Recently, the Nigerian Ambassador to Kenya had to speak out against the treatment meted out to Nigerians in Kenya. He said that it “is not good for African Union idea”. Let universal reason guide us as we move forward through the 21st century, otherwise as Plotinus wrote, “the centrifugal law would overpower us and sweep our souls out far from their source towards the cold extremities of the material and the manifold (Plotinus AD 204-274).

Finally , the people of the world must be reminded and advanced souls have become more persuaded that there is need to eradicate all forms of injustice, racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance. In the 1975 UN Declaration of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, it was stated as follows:

  1. Any doctrine on race differentiation or superiority is seriously false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous and there is no justification for racial discrimination (and we must add for xenophobia and intolerance) either in theory or practice.
  2. All forms of racial discrimination are condemnable. More so, government policies based on the prejudice of race superiority or racial hatred besides constituting a violation of fundamental human rights and tend to jeopardize friendly relations among peoples and endanger cooperation between nations as well as international peace and security.
  3. Racial discrimination harms not only those who are its objects but also those who practice it and
  4. The building of world society free from all forms of racial segregation and discrimination are factors, which create hatred and division among men and woman, is one of the fundamental objectives of the United Nations.

Government should rescind laws and regulations, which have the effect of creating and perpetuating racial discrimination. Governments have been urged by the UN to adopt legislations prohibiting racial discrimination, ethic antagonism, irredentist tendencies and combat practices which lead to xenophobia, intolerance, racial hatred an other acts of racial prejudice.

Small-minded acts like xenophobia, intolerance , racial bigotry, ethnic preference and taking undue advantage over others erect barriers on the historical march forward because the create inferiority complexes, reduction in daring, uncomfortable positioning and defeatism. These handcuff ambition, human adventure and the spirit of enterprise.

The Durban UN Conference provided a forum for historical injustice to be highlighted, for issues concerning slavery, colonialism and genocidal acts to be canvassed, for apologies to be demanded. Any State which found these issues very uncomfortable could have gallantly stayed on or stayed away from the conference. Threatening the conference was an act of irresponsibility, arrogance and insensitivity, which would be resisted in the years to come.

This was perhaps why Civil Rights Groups in the United States urged their Secretary of State, Collin Powell to attend the Conference on racism, which Washington threatened to boycott. Wade Henderson, Executive Director of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights said that “if the United States did not send an official delegation on South Africa, it will be a mistake”. He said, “the absence of the US would certainly signal in some ways that the United States took less seriously the debate over racial discrimination and racism than other countries in the world”. Six other civil rights groups shared this view.

The United States of America objected to Arab States, which declared that the Conference texts singled out Israel as a “racist”, occupying power. The US also objected to including on that agenda the issue of slavery and colonialism. Extensive negotiations over language in the final language text ended in failure. In the practice of international relations, it has apparently come to be accepted that any point made no matter how reasonable and logical but which bears a semblance to criticizing the United States must be tactfully and carefully avoided. This is because too many people in the world are beholden to America because of its wide influence and location in world politics. The promiscuous political relations between some African leaders and the US have taken the sting out of criticism of imperialism. However, a few observations must be made with regards to the surprising news that United States was not favourably disposed to the Durban UN Conference. One, the US Government issued annual reports on human rights status often criticizing China, the Soviet Union, Cuba, Iraq, Nigeria and other states.

Two, negotiations on language limit the freedom of speech of participating states. Three, speaking on behalf of Israel suggests that the Middle East Crisis was seen from a coloured prism. Discussions on human rights, which omit racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance, are hollow, insincere and mere propaganda.

Contemporary America leaders are not racists and the race relations in America has not improved since 1970. America has assisted through USAID, the development in many countries since 1945. This has been a tacit way in which it has made reparations. America should not block a demand on colonial States like Britain, France, Germany and Japan for their colonial atrocities, which are still being felt. Any attempt to do so will hurt African states.

I think that the Durban UN conference offered a unique opportunity to all Nations to review the ugly past of human race and resolve to improve the lot of citizens as they put the past behind them. Failure to attend the conference could be evidence of a defiant attitude and behaviour. The whiplash of the well-documented historical injustices has remained very painful.

No matter how one looks at it, the infamy paraded by men with misplaced conscience, who enslaved human beings, colonized them, exploited their natural and human resources can never be forgotten as long as man walks this terrestrial orbit. So whether the power of shame causes one to dodge the issues or not, the serpent of illusion will continue to crawl along the corridors of States House around the world.

People are bound to react when their national pride is wounded and there is no knowing how destructive their action can be. A world in which Super Powers trample on the feelings of those oppressed is not safe for anyone. America must review its policies like the Anti-AMB treaty, building a nuclear defence shield and using the language of privileged government because these aggravate passions, pushing some people to desperation and revolt.


Barely one month after the Durban Conference, a group of terrorists attacked the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon in Washington. Some political analysts posited that this was perhaps a bitter reaction to the position of the United States and Israel, which walked out of Durban Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.

The United States of America, refused to apologise for the slave trade and slavery while European colonial States refused to apologise for colonialism Israel also walked out of the Durban Conference without remorse for its actions against Palestinians. This must have inflamed passions in the Arab world. Those terrorists who have been driven by hatred of Euro-American States would continue to hatch plots on progressive mankind. We must eliminate oppression, respect human dignity and human aspirations. We must listen to others for “they too have their stories: We are not qualified to judge desperate men because there is “no effect without a cause”.

There is no smoke without fire”.

The world should ask the blacks, the Irish, the Iraqis, the Palestinians, the Cubans, the Africans, the freedom fighters often called terrorists, what their grievances are. This is the only way we can have peace on earth.


Anyone who has acquainted himself or herself with diplomacy and intelligence will be hard put to understand how a state like the United States of America would have been so easily overwhelmed by the disastrous events that took place on September 11, 2001 in New York and Washington. Every populous city in the world like Paris, London, New York, Tokyo, Moscow, Lagos, Cairo, etc, should be under extra alertness all the time.

Critical Failures On Globalization

  1. Globalization failed because it was unclear, who was globalizing and who was being globalised.

Climate change is beyond the puny brains of man. Until we acknowledge the creator of the universe to change the weather, no pseudo – intellectual musings will save the planet.

We drop bombs, keep unclear depots, pollute the oceans with spilled crude oil, and then we complain about climate change. What hypocrisy! the money States should have used on social security is wasted on arms production, procurement and wars.

United Nations Critical Successes

  1. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
  1. Convention relating to the Status of refugees.
  1. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

These Conventions have regulated international relations to a large extent.


  1. The UN should re-affirm the observance of the Brian-Kellogg Pact of 1928
  1. Denounce the Sykes / Pique Treaty of 1920, which divided the Arab world into British and French spheres of influence. The struggle against the Skykes Pique Treaty gave birth to the Arab Baath Party.
  • Denounce the invasion of Syria leading to unprecedented refugee crisis and death in the Mediterranean Sea.
  1. Denounce the invasion of Iraq, the disbandment of the Iraqi army and the resultant ISIS insurgency.
  1. Denounce the invasion of Libya and the death of Gaddafi which has led to the massive immigration of those people, who depended on Gaddafi’s benevolence. They have faced death in the Mediterranean Sea.
  1. Prohibit arms manufacture, sales and proliferation world-wide. It is fruitless to condemn terrorism while terrorists are armed by their supporters.
  • Engage in active diplomacy to de-escalate the Russia/Ukrainian crisis
  • Prevail on the Government of Japan to drop its militaristic proposals.
  1. Admit Nigeria into the Security Council.
  1. The UN should applaud US-Cuban, US-Iran Rapprochement.

US – Cuban restoration of diplomatic relation is a defeat of McCarthyism, arrogance and hard attitude.

US-Iranian Treaty on Nuclear weapons is a victory for intellectual reason.

The intellectual rigour of the US under Donald Trump is a thing to watch because of his temperament, his attitude to China and Russia and his immigration policies.

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