The turning point for the world against colonialism came on the heels of the Second World War. The War unintentionally brewed the great idea that jeopardised the philosophy of colonialism along the initiative that prompted Britain to defend the rights of other European countries to govern themselves and to support the right to resist the forces of Germany’s military occupation. The reasons that Britain gave to go into war against Germany became the catalyst idea on which nationalists sowed the seed of freedom in the minds of Africans and other oppressed people of the world. This fundamental idea about freedom and self-rule found a fertile soil in the awakened minds of African students in Europe and other Africans who served in the military expedition against Germany and Japan.
In addition, the works of African intellectuals in the beginning of the 20th century – W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey – did so much fatal damage to the benign attitude of Africans to the colonial ideology of providing good governance and civilization to Africans. These enlightened Africans worked tirelessly to refute all the contemporary myths and fallacies created about the circumstances of Africa and of Africans. For example, Marcus Garvey organised ‘mass movement around the theme of black nationalism’; while DuBois did more than anyone else to raise the cultural and political awareness of Africans through the organisation of Pan African Congresses and Conferences in London, 1900; Paris, 1919; Brussels, 1921; London and Brussels, 1923; New York, 1927; and Manchester, 1945.
Along this line, we cannot fail to mention the efforts of Mahatma Gandhi who had consistently mounted a non-violence attack on the injustices of colonial rule in India since 1919 and long before the Second World War started. The War actually gave international credibility to Gandhi’s relentless attack on the inherent corruption of the ideology of colonial imperialism. Coincidentally, South Africa lit the fire of enlightenment for Gandhi. It was in South Africa, while practicing as a lawyer, he witnessed at very close range the unjust practices of institutionalised racial inequality between Europeans and other racial groups.
In addition, the 1936 unanimous vote in the Union Parliament of South Africa that ‘made the possession of a black skin a final disqualification for the privileges of citizenship’ gave the warning signal to every enlightened black man that the minority white men running the affairs of their countries could also pass similar laws sooner than later. In fact, Macmillan (1938) recorded that ‘White minorities in other parts of Africa betrayed the same nervous leaning to discriminatory legislation.’
These interrelated social circumstances and political forces somehow bound together to fire the independence fever among enlightened Africans in the 1940s. The new crop of young three-quarter educated Africans who have lived among the Europeans and had come to realise the fundamental hypocrisy of the Christian beliefs and the faith exported to Africa could not help but to turn their backs on everything European. To these young Africans, equality of persons became a cardinal belief and they accepted it as an inalienable right of every man. The knowledge and understanding of the fundamental truth of equality of life miraculously cured the psychological disease of inferiority complex that had hitherto dominated their lives. There and then, this fundamental truth removed the veil of ignorance and they were able to see that no European was of any significant racial superior importance to any other African. The discovery of the fundamental truth about the commonality of nature of humankinds irrespective of colour of skin set this crop of Africans free from every hitherto mandatory subservient compulsion as it cured them of all the deep-rooted psychological complexes.
On their return to Africa, these reborn Africans stood tall, eyeball-to-eyeball and faced the colonial exploiters of Africa as they demanded in very strong terms a right to equal opportunities in the affairs of their fatherland. They fought for equal opportunities in the civil service, in business communities, in politics and in civil organisations and clubs. They waged relentless battles on all forms of segregation and discrimination based on differences of skin colour. They exposed and waged battles on every obnoxious colonial law and regulation promulgated solely to restrain Africans from free expression and free congregation towards self-rule.
The fundamental idea of the right of every nation to self-determination and self-rule that the Second World War threw up gave the impetus to the newly established United Nations and the United States of America to put pressure on imperial Europe to dismantle the colonial institutions under their control. As soon as India succeeded in 1947 to gain independence from Great Britain, the political floodgate opened for Africa. Libya was the first country to breast the tape of independence in 1951 among the North African countries while Ghana did the same for West Africa in 1957. Between 1951 and 1968, 39 countries successfully severed their unjust political umbilical cords with Europe. However, the sad news is the European countries, in one form or the other, held the last joker of this independence political game.
The outcome of the battle for independence tilted, more or less, in favour of imperial Europe. It was no longer a secret that the brilliant agitators among the Africans who canvassed for independence were carefully schemed out of the final project. The Europeans ensured that the independence certificate and the staff of office were handed only to those Africans who had shown in the past that they preferred the good governance of Europeans to those being promised by their African brothers. These African pro-European groups made the project of political independence very difficult because of their intransigence and unwillingness to support the initiatives at every stage. The African non-believers who refused to see the moral justification for independence became the last weapon of imperialism in Africa. It was on this group that imperial Europe placed its last hope and through them, colonial managers designed a foolproof plan for continued domination of Africa.
With respect to Great Britain and citing Nigeria as an example, the alternative political plan to colonialism started in earnest as soon as it became obvious that empire ownership would soon cease to be popular in the world. Britain designed crash education programmes for the group of unbelievers or the group of ‘not-yet-ready’ for independence. Britain exposed this group of unbelievers to basic idea on the nature, importance and management of political power and governance. The Europeans spent valuable time with this group as they plotted to hand over the political baton of the country to them. These are the people they had earlier carefully neglected and cordoned off from western education. The imperial powers felt that the only way to retain their stolen properties and lucrative investments in Africa was to have in place pliable persons who they could manipulate from afar. They found this type of materials among the independence unbelievers who had no qualm about accepting covertly to front for imperial Britain as long as Britain assured them of protection from their progressive national neighbours.
Within 10 years of the commencement of self-government in independent African countries, military coup d’états had sacked almost all the governments. The independent government of Democratic Republic of Congo was not even allowed to take off properly while that of Togo lasted less than three years. The Federal Republic of Nigeria lasted six years while Ghana had 9 years of self-rule, and so on and so forth. The young military officers that seized power from the politicians cited corruption as the popular reason for their unconstitutional actions. They listed among other things: bribery and kickbacks, nepotism, tribalism, abuse of official positions and power, aimlessness or lack of direction, lack of vision, wastefulness, stupidity etc. Sadly, for another 20 years, the hare-brained military boys took a large part of African countries to the cleaners. Every moral and every ethical issue on which they crucified the politicians were broken several times over by these military bandits. These ‘boys’ wrecked havoc all over the continent. They sunk each country that fell under their management in massive debt and brought it into bankruptcy.
Without any unnecessary effort to paint a conspiracy theory but based solely on the available evidences, it is sufficient to say that African nationalists in their naivety played into the political and economic traps set by imperial Europe. The clamour for independence was not a bad idea, the inability of the then nationalists to dig deeper in the realm of knowledge before they embarked on the freedom trail was the problem. These foremost Africans of the 20th century were just too much in a hurry. Again, with hindsight one can say they were driven by one of the vilest motives in human nature – jealousy. It seems these Africans were just envious, covetous and resentful of the largess of office the colonial civil servants and merchants were enjoying. It is obvious from the result of the independence adventure that the nationalist fighters never fully understood the bigger concerns of equality, liberty and justice.
As it were, this crop of emerging Africans seemed to have been emotionally captivated by the slogans flowing around from the likes of Marcus Garvey, Dr. DuBois and others. There is no doubt, they were captivated and inspired by the patriotic stories of the American War of Independence, the French Revolution and of course the then current Socialist Revolution of Russia. However, these patriots of Africa did not exercise patience and allowed these ideas and ideals to form and recreate them fully before they jumped into the inferno of power and greed. They jumped into the political furore Mahatma Gandhi of India was championing before the rebirth in knowledge that Gandhi experienced had fully taken place in their lives. The result is the alarming socio-economic and political tragedies that are currently facing the continent and the African race. It is on the need to find solution to these human calamities that we invite every African to rise up to the challenges ahead as we salvage together the African people everywhere in the world.
Like the famous English poet and writer, Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) we cannot fail to imagine how it could have been ‘if‘ only the very few enlightened Africans who were later sidelined by the imperial powers had concentrated most of their efforts, first, to the education and enlightenment of other Africans before they embarked on the independence crusade. Maybe, if they had given priority attention to social revolution (changing archaic ideas, superstitious beliefs, retrogressive values and customs, non-progressive attitudes, acquired inferiority complexes, etc.) probably the divide and rule strategy effectively used to sabotage the emergence of purposeful leaders of visions in Africa would not have succeeded.
It is obvious that the small-minded class that emerged on the national political scenes of these countries could not have happened if only the very few enlightened Africans understood fully the origin and nature of political power. If Africans understood, they would have realised that no incumbent power holder freely gives up power without a ruthless fight to death. They would have been suspicious of the haste the colonial government acceded to their request to dismantle imperial institutions as well as the benign cooperation that the Europeans freely offered to these so-called enemies of the Crown.
It is on record that on the eve of departure of the imperial civil servants from Africa, they ensured that all the national institutions of politics and of commerce were deliberately fitted with carefully selected African Yes-men. These were the Africans carefully groomed on a fast-track education and training programmes; and parachuted to the head of various essential departments – military, public services, businesses, government and commerce. They geared all efforts towards ensuring that Europeans could still guide these institutions remotely from abroad even after departing from Africa. It is now quite glaring that the considerations under which the carefully selected Africans were appointed and fast promoted to higher offices was not about developing or civilizing Africa; it was about maintaining and protecting the interest of imperial Europe in Africa. It was therefore imperative that the concerns of the colonial civil servants were not to look for intelligent, articulate, confident Africans but for imbeciles, lackeys, ‘likeable rogues’ and half-educated Africans. These were the group the Crown officials and representatives displayed and paraded before Africans at the independence handing-over ceremonies as they bellowed “Africans! Behold your leaders”.
We should remember that in spite of the visible sophisticated statecraft, the western world never built its logic of leadership on the elitist theory that accepts only the best men of any society should lead. From the recorded history of our world, we discovered that only the most ruthlessly wicked and brutally powerful men have the rights to lead. After securing power, this detestable class of humanity often camouflage their evil personality traits under elaborate outward civility and culture – big costume garments, excessively large jewellery of adornment around their persons, palatial residences called palaces, innumerable retinue of hangers-on or courtiers, etc. Dr Thomas Stuttaford, in a medical briefing titled Telltale signs of a Textbook Personality Disorder gave an incisive professional submission on a British politician who was then in the news at the time this piece was being written. It is a fact that all politicians love to be in the news; it is a political aphrodisiac. However, this time around, the particular politician in focus was in the news for all the wrong reasons. The short article was definitely a revelation to me.
Dr Stuttaford writes, “The prominent personality disorders are divided into three groups, labelled A, B and C” and that the politician under his analysis “fits into cluster B, the group which includes antisocial, histrionic and narcissistic personalities.” The icing on the cake was this: “It is men and women of the cluster B personality disorders who are too often those who succeed and who will later crowd together, not amicably, on the green benches of the House of Commons, will dominate the senior messes in the Armed Forces and control boardrooms. In the past, they created the British Empire.” This erudite submission emphatically confirmed the thesis of this essay that it is the psychologically sick or the spiritually ignorant people of our world who are lording themselves over humanity.
However, if only the innocent people of the world would listen to the ancient Sages who have consistently advised the sane people of the world to stay away from the “antisocial, histrionic and narcissistic personalities” on planet earth. The sages knew that the innate murderous instinct of these degenerates to defend and preserve their stolen powers knows no limit. It is as easy for this group of humanity as breathing is for all others to take the life of anyone as a precautionary measure against the threat or imaginary threat to their power. The sages advised, do not take their favours or patronages because everything these lots do is calculated to blackmail and to compromise the integrity and the dignity of their friends, subjects and enemies alike.
In short, the unfailing strategy of the monarchical hereditary practices that strive to maintain power eternally in one’s name and for one’s posterity is to continuously devise ways and means to entice, to ensnare and to enslave friends, neighbours and enemies by the use of all forms of carrots. Some of the traditional carrots are, the conferring of titles through the King’s or Queen’s honours list, the elevation of favoured subjects into grand social positions, and the granting of special warrant or licence to favoured subjects to make big money. In addition, when everything else failed, the merciless elimination of all known or imagined enemies is never in doubt. These strategies have never failed since these ruinous humankinds captured political and civic powers of the world.
There is no longer any doubt that since 1960 Africa has been compromised through the class of nonentities set over Africans as leaders. It is now clear that every national government established after independence was operating clandestinely from the deep pockets of the imperial majesties – Belgium, Britain, France and Portugal – of Europe. The men and women purporting to be in charge of Africa were nothing but mere puppets that could only dance when commanded by the puppeteers. A good number of the class of 1960 have now died but unfortunately, their spoilt and pampered children have since taken over where they left off. These are the children brought up, under unimaginable privileges by the African standards.
The sad ignorant parents who found themselves swimming in fabulous unearned wealth thought it was a good investment to send their wards to overseas private schools. They packed away these poor children from nursery age to university level into European schools and colleges. The children experienced unspeakable psychological hardships in the hands of their white mates who felt insulted having these uncouth African children in their classes. The parents thought they were doing these children great favours by given them special opportunities to rub shoulders with the children of established European upper class families or ‘toffs’ in Eton College, Oxford and Cambridge Universities in England and similar institutions in France, Belgium and Portugal. This was at the time when the age mates of these children in Africa, under the mediocre misrule of the fathers of the privileged children, had neither classrooms nor teachers to satisfy their educational needs and unprecedented eager appetites for knowledge.
The so-called African leaders nurtured their children to believe that they have inalienable birthrights to inherit the political establishments of Africa. Up until this moment, these children have not found the time to review the catalogue of errors of omission and commission committed by their fathers and mothers. In fact, these children are yet to see anything wrong in the leadership styles and practices of their ancestors. As at when necessary, they love to invoke the memory of their ancestors as a means to gain political attention and to secure electoral support. Just like their ancestors, they love money, high positions and power and their greed for the excesses of life knows no bound.
Sadly for Africa, the collection of these children drawn from African parents that served in top posts in the colonial indirect rule administration, in the military establishments, in the political administration of military coup plotters and in the notoriously corrupt public services have teamed up to become the new elites of Africa. As their parents were before them, these new elites are equally bereft of true knowledge on the meaning of life. Of course, they exhibit all the pretences of the educated, of the cultured and of the civilized but these elites of Africa are as hollow and as noisy as empty barrels.
These new elites are the current class of democrats in Africa whose interest in democracy is only on deals and dealership of power. They have no political ideals of any kind except the one that says ‘the end justifies the means’. As far as they are concerned, the end of politics is power. Therefore, whatever compromise one can make; whatever unethical deal one can broker; whatever lie one can get away with; and whatever murder of political opponents one can sponsor, as long as any or all of these things deliver the coveted political crown of leadership, then a good democrat should go for it. These are the new crusaders of democracy in Africa. They have no time to study and digest the philosophy, the moral and ethical principles that informed the birth of the concept of democracy in the world. They throw around concepts and popular quotes from the Greek philosophy, Jewish ethics and Arabian theology but they are least bothered about seeking further to understand the culture and the nature of social forces that gave birth to these popular words of wisdom.
Dear Africans, behold the charlatans on the political stage of the African continent. Please, behold again the so-called leaders as they continue to foul the air of all divine sensibilities, to pollute the atmosphere of moral and ethical virtues, to block the window of enlightenment and to suffocate the civil and political institutions of Africa. These are not leaders; these are the pretenders, alias the Dishonourable Africans. They have no leadership qualities because these are not virtues found among robbers or their unrepentant descendants.
The foregoing reviews and revelations are the reasons for tracing the history of leadership from the western perspectives of our world. The close connection of global history is another veritable proof of the interrelatedness of values among humankind despite the wall of hate the supremacists have tried to build between racial groups. I believe every living person needs to understand the meaning, nature and origin of leadership practices in the world and their negative consequent effects on global peace and welfare. Unless the enlightened souls can popularise the awareness of this knowledge among the people, most Africans would not realise that we cannot deal with the problem of leadership in Africa without taking note of the conventional global wisdom on power. The contemporary leadership spirit, style and culture in the world is a global virus and like the treatment of any malignant cancer we must get to the root of the nature of the virus before we can find effective treatment. Nothing short of this fundamental approach to the prevailing fraud of leadership in Africa and in the world can go beyond a palliative solution, like covering a virulent skin problem with a beautiful garment.
The leadership practice in contemporary Africa, as in every country under the new global order of unregulated market economy and globalisation of free trade, is now defined in terms of monetary success. Money now delineates the sole criterion for determining the eligibility of persons for political leadership positions. The global economic ethics based on the slogan, ‘greed is good’ that started with Reaganomics and Thatcherites in the 1980s have supplanted every other ethics of human relationships. It is an acknowledged fact that under modern democratic practices the support a candidate enjoys is often directly proportional to the size of the purse or wealth under the control of the candidate. In every nation of the world, the richest men are also becoming the best men for political office and leadership role. Jeremy Hardy a columnist for The Guardian Newspaper of Britain put this across clearly in his analysis of what he saw as a sign of lack of moral principle in the New Labour Party of Britain as it continuously offers ministerial appointments to moneymen and women. Hardy says, “in New Labour’s scale of values, an achiever is a person successfully driven to attain wealth and power above all else; and such people are clearly suited to running everything.”
The history of contemporary African leaders is a relatively new development. In fact, we can time the beginning of this history to the 1960s when the agitators for political independence collected the illustrious prize of independence from imperial Europe. The class of 1960s and the military vandals that came shortly after them have since gorged themselves senseless with stolen money from their respective state treasuries. Perhaps, in their warped mentality the Dishonourable Africans felt this is a just price that fellow nationals ought to pay them for taking up the fight against colonialism. Because of their banditry, Africa can now boast of wealthy millionaires but without any supporting evidence of the means or source of procurement of the wealth. These African millionaires cannot point to any production outfit through which they created the wealth. As it were, we can only hazard some guesses: maybe these millionaires harvested their money from money trees planted in the back gardens or maybe Father Christmas deposited the loot through the chimney. However, without much ado about the obvious, every intelligent African knows where the mammoth wealth of these jesters came from.
The consequences of unearned wealth in the possession of African so-called leaders have done irreparable damage to every value hitherto held sacrosanct in Africa. The new crop of political leaders imposed on Africa jettisoned and degraded the value of hard work, the cultural ethics that abhor stealing, the divine principle of equality of persons, the noble decency in moderation and several other moral and social values. Since the advent of the Arabs and Europeans in Africa, the group of Africans that emerged as leaders are indeed the undesirable Africans. These special breeds of Africans have proved beyond any shadow of doubt that they are truly the dishonourable kind of Africans. There is no iota of nobility in the whole lot of them.
However, it is important to mention that a very few men, such as the late Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, could be counted as notable exemptions. He was one of the significant few that demonstrated a contrary proposition that it is possible for a society to have a leader and still failed to progress. The theme of the essay is that Africa lacked leaders and that is why Africa is in despair. But here was Julius Nyerere, a truthful and selfless leader who sacrificed all he had for his people and yet Tanzania is not different from all the other African countries. He led Tanzania by a moral example of simplicity that chose to live a life of noble moderation and that bravely refused to worship at the altar of mammon, yet Tanzania has nothing to show for his exemplary life.
President Nyerere’s vision for Tanzania died on the drawing board because his lieutenants listened to and drown under imperialist lies. In short, they sold their lives to the devil while they pretended to be going along with Nyerere on his ujamaa (“familyhood”) political philosophy. Tanzania is therefore a classic case of a country in Africa that had a leader but lacked followers. The digression on Tanzania is necessary to demonstrate the other side of the coin that leadership needs followership too before it can become effective as a catalyst for change and progress. It is no good putting the blame of Africa’s woes on lack of leadership without understanding that leadership without articulate and well-informed followers can never produce a fruitful result.
Travelling around Africa today during political party elections will testify to the assertion that money has debased every moral and ethical code in Africa. The role of moneymen and women as they swing the votes through money power that deliberately play monkey games on the ignorance and poverty of fellow nationals cannot but shame the enlightened. With money playing a dominant but pernicious role in the political affairs of the continent, Africans have readily sacrificed philosophical ideas, ideals, principles, honours, beliefs, convictions, ethics, morals etc. at the bazaar of mammon. Take away these virtues in the life of any people, society, nation, or race what will remain is a shell of soulless beings. Aristotle once said, the difference found between beast and man is the result of the positive impact of education or philosophy. Therefore, without education, without a formulated logic on the purpose and the meaning of life, man is not different from beast or even worse than beast. “For man when perfected is the best of all animals, but, when separated from law and justice, he is the worst of all.”
The awakened and the redeemed souls of Africa cannot help but shed tears of shame for Africa. They can see Africans as they swim in their vomits like pigs in dirty puddle, yet the majority of Africans are unable to see the state of their pathetic wretchedness. It is like one of the songs that Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, a popular Afro musician, once sang about Nigerians in Suffering and Smiling. He noted that even though Nigerians are suffering untold hardships in the hands of their prodigal leaders yet they kept on smiling. Some enemies of Africa called this trait African resilience but it is nothing of that kind; it is simply African foolishness and depravity. Despite the unacceptable state of Africa, the African dishonourable leaders still glorify in ignorance and seem unperturbed by the low level of life around them. They have no time to fathom out what is wrong with Africa. Ignorance and gluttony seem to have blindfolded these misleaders of Africa and have stifled their mental capacity for both rational thinking and logical reasoning.
Nigeria is a classic case study of a country where ignorance and gluttony have been crowned as diarchy or dual kings. This country have natural riches and wealth in abundance but due to mental laziness, the nationals have allowed swindlers and con artists of all shades and characters to deprive them of the benefit of this good fortune. Yet, some of the nationals who participated in the rape and plunder of this country as spineless, brainless middlemen haven’t got any clue and therefore have no shame about what happened and what is still happening. The sane people of the world watch and chuckle in amazement when they see the Dishonourable Nigerians presenting and introducing themselves as leaders of the ‘Federal Republic of Nigeria’ in international forum.
It is understandable why most enlightened Africans who have closely followed the story of this nation often feel ashamed as Africans when the case of Nigeria is under the searchlight. They would ask themselves in umpteenth times, how could these prodigal sons and daughters of Africa from Nigeria be lacking in shame. How could they have the gut in any international forum to be seeking leadership role or opportunities? What example do they have to show and to convince the world that they are capable managers of resources when their national resources and wealth were recklessly wasted? It beats the imagination of all and sundry how any Nigerian so-called leader can still stand tall and proud when all the human calamities of that nation are put together. A host of nations with serious leaders of vision have lamented their ill luck and could not resist wondering what would have happened to their country, if only they were able to lay their hands on one-tenth of the resources of Nigeria.
However, Nigeria is not different to other nations in Africa, her case is only significant because of the volume of resources and wealth at the disposal of that country. Every other nation in Africa has exhibited similar profligate tendencies even with the meagre resources at the disposal of these countries. What amazed observers of Africa is the careless and callous manner the so-called leaders of Africa have treated and abandoned the affairs of their people. The impression of a palpable lack of feeling and love shown by the elite of Africa for their own kind is a serious indictment. It is a testimony of an endemic paucity of spiritual enlightenment and development. This is the most incontrovertible evidence that demonstrated the fall of Africans from a position of spiritual grace to a level below the animal forms. The result of the spiritual fall is the overwhelming physical calamity visible all over the land of Africa in the 21st century.
Can you remember what Beull said about the African clerks and traditional rulers that the colonial government employed to do their dirty jobs? I will repeat it again. Beull says, “In many of these cases, the educated natives showed that they had lost all sympathy for the group out of which they came and that they had no compunction in abusing their power for personal ends.” Can you remember how the Arabs and Europeans bandits dethroned and sidelined the authentic indigenous leaders since they arrived in Africa? Do you remember the kind of people and the type of characters the Arabs and Europeans attracted to their religious cults and ‘civilized societies’? Do you remember the weaklings of Africa that the imperialists favoured and elevated over and above better Africans and who they later imposed on Africans as leaders.
Do you remember the personality types – the uneducated or half-educated – that the departing imperial powers preferred and schemed into office to take over the rein of government after independence? Do you remember the types drafted into the Colonial Territorial Armed Forces and later parachuted into officer cadres to staff the military institutions of the new independent countries – the Idi Amins of Uganda, the Bokkasas of Central African Republic, the Mobutus of Congo etc.? Do you remember how these thugs with the prodding and connivance of the agents of imperial powers later succeeded in taken control of the independent countries from the equally ignorant politicians that failed to perform to the ‘standard’ expected of them by their puppeteers?
If we put all these facts into consideration, why should Africans expect the seeds of these wretched evil vines to produce anything but sour fruits? This writer will like to challenge all protagonists of contemporary leadership practice in Africa to present one honourable or noble person among the lots occupying or jostling for leadership positions in Africa. It is the contention of this writer that we cannot find any honourable person participating in politics or practising in business under the prevailing evil climate in Africa today.
The seeds of ignorance, hatred, and callousness and of divide and rule planted by the imperialists have germinated and their roots have now deepened to a dangerous level. The sporadic, catastrophic and volcanic rumbling from the trees of hate planted amongst Africans are almost at the edge of eruption to tear apart a host of countries. It was bad enough to force and bound different nations together under one flag but to play one ethnic group against another for the sole purpose of ensuring a perpetual imperial domination of other people without any thought or concern for the happiness and well being of the people was cruel, immoral and a complete mockery of life and civilization. What is incomprehensible is that the nationals of these divided countries cannot, up until now, fathom this ingenuous evil machination and are therefore yet to understand the genesis of the problem tearing their poor countries apart. This blatant ignorance among Africans beggars believes among the enlightened souls.
(To be continued)